1.Status of Emergency Contraceptives in Europe One Year after the European Medicines Agency's Recommendation to Switch Ulipristal Acetate to Non-Prescription Status.
Italia S;Brand H Public Health Genomics. 2016;19(4):203-10. doi: 10.1159/000444686. Epub 2016 Mar 30.
BACKGROUND: ;In November 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended switching the emergency contraceptive (EMC) ulipristal acetate to non-prescription status. This study's objective is to assess the current legal status of the two EMCs ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel in Europe and to report on the development of sales figures for EMCs since they were made freely available.;METHODS: ;Health authorities were contacted in autumn 2015 and asked about the current status of EMCs and whether the sales figures had changed after a switch to non-prescription status. Additionally, data on consumption were collected in 18 German community pharmacies.;RESULTS: ;As of November 2015, most countries in the European Union (EU) have followed the EMA recommendation. Hungary kept the prescription-only status. In Malta, EMC drugs are not authorized. Germany and Croatia switched levonorgestrel to non-prescription status as well. Of the EU candidate and European Free Trade Association countries, ulipristal acetate is available without prescription in Norway and Bosnia and Herzegovina only. Several countries reported an increase in EMC sales since the switch.;CONCLUSIONS: ;An EMA recommendation can strongly contribute to the harmonization of a drug's legal status in the EU.
2.Monitoring of non-point source pollutants load from a mixed forest land use.
Yoon SW;Chung SW;Oh DG;Lee JW J Environ Sci (China). 2010;22(6):801-5.
The aim of this study was to determine the unit load of NPS (non-point source) pollutants including organic variables such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), COD (chemical oxygen demand) and DOC (dissolved organic carbon), nitrogen and phosphorus constituents, and suspended solids (SS) and their event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff flows from a water-shed of mixed forest land use by intensive field experiments. Field monitoring for continuous measurements of rainfall, flow, and water quality was conducted over 12 storm events during 2008-2009 using automated and manual sampling methods. The EMCs of individual runoff event were estimated for each water quality constituent based on the flow rate and concentration data of runoff discharge. The average EMCs of BOD, COD, DOC, SS, TN (total nitrogen), NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, TP (total phosphorus), PO4(3-)-P from the mixed forest land were 1.794, 3.498, 1.462, 10.269, 0.862, 0.044, 0.634, 0.034, and 0.005 mg/L, respectively. The annual unit loads of BOD, COD, DOC, SS, TN, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, TP and PO4(3-)-P were estimated as 66.9, 133.2, 55.5, 429.8, 36.5, 1.6, 26.9, 1.3 and 0.1 kg/(ha x yr), respectively. In addition, affecting parameters on the EMCs were investigated by statistic analysis of the field data.
3.Watershed and land use-based sources of trace metals in urban storm water.
Tiefenthaler LL;Stein ED;Schiff KC Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008 Feb;27(2):277-87. doi: 10.1897/07-126R.1.
Trace metal contributions in urban storm water are of concern to environmental managers because of their potential impacts on ambient receiving waters. The mechanisms and processes that influence temporal and spatial patterns of trace metal loading in urban storm water, however, are not well understood. The goals of the present study were to quantify trace metal event mean concentration (EMC), flux, and mass loading associated with storm water runoff from representative land uses; to compare EMC, flux, and mass loading associated with storm water runoff from urban (developed) and nonurban (undeveloped) watersheds; and to investigate within-storm and within-season factors that affect trace metal concentration and flux. To achieve these goals, trace metal concentrations were measured in 315 samples over 11 storm events in five southern California, USA, watersheds representing eight different land use types during the 2000 through 2005 storm seasons. In addition, 377 runoff samples were collected from 12 mass emission sites (end of watershed) during 15 different storm events. Mean flux at land use sites ranged from 24 to 1,238, 0.1 to 1,272, and 6 to 33,189 g/km(2) for total copper, total lead, and total zinc, respectively.