Cell membranes

Cell membranes

Catalog Product Name CAS Number
BADC-00817 Muscotoxin A 1653999-47-3
Muscotoxin A is an ADC cytotoxin. Muscotoxin A is a cytotoxic lipopeptide that permeabilizes mammalian cell membranes and induces necrotic cell death. Inquiry

With advanced technology and years of experience, BOC Sciences focuses on producing and manufacturing various cytotoxins to support your antibody drug conjugate (ADC) project research needs. Our strong expertise in process development, characterization, optimization, and scale-up can support successful GMP manufacturing and productive long-term cooperative relationships with pharmaceutical companies, institutions, and universities.

The structure of cell membranes. Fig. 1. The structure of cell membranes.

Cell membranes are elastic semipermeable membranes composed of phospholipids, and its main functions are to selectively exchange substances, absorb nutrients, excrete metabolic wastes, and secrete and transport proteins. The cell membrane absorbs, digests and discharges intracellular or extracellular substances through pinocytosis, phagocytosis or exocytosis. The plasma membrane also plays an important role in cell recognition, signal transmission, cellulose synthesis, and assembly of microfibrils. It has inherently unique characteristics such as natural targeting and immunogenicity, which originate from the various ligands present on cell membranes. Due to the unique composition and arrangement of cancer cell membranes, the developments in cancer-related lipidomics and strategies to interfere specifically with cancer cell membranes are flourishing.

Cell Membranes Characteristics

The cell membrane is a barrier that prevents extracellular substances from freely entering the cell. It ensures the relative stability of the intracellular environment and enables various biochemical reactions to run in an orderly manner. Cancer cell metastasis is the leading cause of cancer death. As cancer cells get deterioration, their structure changes to make it easier to migrate. The researchers found that apparent changes in cell structure and movement can be controlled by the cell's own physical properties. Cancer cells are reported to be softer than normal cells and most cancer therapeutics are designed to interact with nucleic acids and proteins. However, given the changes in lipid composition and related functions in cancer cells, lipid therapy is emerging as a very interesting alternative. Modulation of, or interaction with, lipids could change lipid composition, membrane properties or alter these associated functions. Therefore, the cellular membrane is considered as a potential cancer therapeutic target.

Cell Membranes Inhibitor

The cellular membrane is a uniquely organized and complex component of the cell, responsible of maintaining cellular structure and interaction with the environment. The knowledge of lipid composition and especially the alterations reported in cancer provides a major opportunity to treat and prevent cancer. The cell membrane and possibilities we have to manipulate its composition and function provides a powerful tool in the treatment of cancer either in combination with chemotherapeutics as well as small molecules, which are currently being developed. The cell membrane and its components must be taken into account as key factors in cancer treatment and deserves attention for the development of new therapeutic strategies. As an ADC cytotoxin, Muscotoxin A is a cytotoxic lipopeptide that permeabilizes mammalian cell membranes and induces necrotic cell death.


  1. Hussain, Z.; et al. Cell membrane cloaked nanomedicines for bio-imaging and immunotherapy of cancer: Improved pharmacokinetics, cell internalization and anticancer efficacy. Journal of Controlled Release, 2021, 335: 130-157.
  2. Zalba, S.; et al. Cell membrane modulation as adjuvant in cancer therapy. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 2017, 52: 48-57.
* Only for research. Not suitable for any diagnostic or therapeutic use.

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