1.Discovery of cytotoxic dolastatin 10 analogues with N-terminal modifications.
Maderna A;Doroski M;Subramanyam C;Porte A;Leverett CA;Vetelino BC;Chen Z;Risley H;Parris K;Pandit J;Varghese AH;Shanker S;Song C;Sukuru SC;Farley KA;Wagenaar MM;Shapiro MJ;Musto S;Lam MH;Loganzo F;O'Donnell CJ J Med Chem. 2014 Dec 26;57(24):10527-43. doi: 10.1021/jm501649k. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
Auristatins, synthetic analogues of the antineoplastic natural product Dolastatin 10, are ultrapotent cytotoxic microtubule inhibitors that are clinically used as payloads in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). The design and synthesis of several new auristatin analogues with N-terminal modifications that include amino acids with α,α-disubstituted carbon atoms are described, including the discovery of our lead auristatin, PF-06380101. This modification of the peptide structure is unprecedented and led to analogues with excellent potencies in tumor cell proliferation assays and differential ADME properties when compared to other synthetic auristatin analogues that are used in the preparation of ADCs. In addition, auristatin cocrystal structures with tubulin are being presented that allow for the detailed examination of their binding modes. A surprising finding is that all analyzed analogues have a cis-configuration at the Val-Dil amide bond in their functionally relevant tubulin bound state, whereas in solution this bond is exclusively in the trans-configuration. This remarkable observation shines light onto the preferred binding mode of auristatins and serves as a valuable tool for structure-based drug design.
2.RN927C, a Site-Specific Trop-2 Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) with Enhanced Stability, Is Highly Efficacious in Preclinical Solid Tumor Models.
Strop P;Tran TT;Dorywalska M;Delaria K;Dushin R;Wong OK;Ho WH;Zhou D;Wu A;Kraynov E;Aschenbrenner L;Han B;O'Donnell CJ;Pons J;Rajpal A;Shelton DL;Liu SH Mol Cancer Ther. 2016 Nov;15(11):2698-2708. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
Trop-2, also known as TACSTD2, EGP-1, GA733-1, and M1S1, is frequently expressed on a variety of human carcinomas, and its expression is often associated with poor prognosis of the diseases. However, it is also present on the epithelium of several normal tissues. A comprehensively designed Trop-2-targeting antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), balancing both efficacy and toxicity, is therefore necessary to achieve clinical utility. To this end, we developed a cleavable Trop-2 ADC (RN927C) using a site-specific transglutaminase-mediated conjugation method and a proprietary microtubule inhibitor (MTI) linker-payload, PF-06380101. Robust in vitro cytotoxicity of RN927C was observed on a panel of Trop-2-expressing tumor cell lines, with IC;50; generally in the subnanomolar range. As expected for an MTI-containing ADC, RN927C readily induced mitotic arrest of treated cells in vitro and in vivo, followed by subsequent cell death. The in vivo efficacy of RN927C was tested in multiple cell line and patient-derived xenograft tumor models, including pancreatic, lung, ovarian, and triple-negative breast tumor types. Single-dose administration of RN927C at 0.75 to 3 mg/kg was generally sufficient to induce sustained regression of Trop-2-expressing tumors and showed superior efficacy over standard treatment with paclitaxel or gemcitabine.
3.Quantitative Conjugated Payload Measurement Using Enzymatic Release of Antibody-Drug Conjugate with Cleavable Linker.
Rago B;Tumey LN;Wei C;Barletta F;Clark T;Hansel S;Han X Bioconjug Chem. 2017 Feb 15;28(2):620-626. doi: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00695. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
As antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) design is evolving with novel payload, linker, and conjugation chemistry, the need for sensitive and precise quantitative measurement of conjugated payload to support pharmacokinetics (PK) is in high demand. Compared to ADCs containing noncleavable linkers, a strategy specific to linkers which are liable to pH, chemical reduction, or enzymatic cleavage has gained popularity in recent years. One bioanalytical approach to take advantage of this type of linker design is the development of a PK assay measuring released conjugated payload. For the ADC utilizing a dipeptide ValCit linker studied in this report, the release of payload PF-06380101 was achieved with high efficiency using a purified cathepsin B enzyme. The subsequent liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) quantitation leads to the PK profile of the conjugated payload. For this particular linker using a maleimide-based conjugation chemistry, one potential route of payload loss would result in an albumin adduct of the linker-payload. While this adduct's formation has been previously reported, here, for the first time, we have shown that payload from a source other than ADC contributes only up to 4% of total conjugated payload while it accounts for approximately 35% of payload lost from the ADC at 48 h after dosing to rats.