1.The influence of tetrodotoxin on the toxic effects of aconitine in vivo.
Ohno Y;Chiba S;Uchigasaki S;Uchima E;Nagamori H;Mizugaki M;Ohyama Y;Kimura K;Suzuki Y Tohoku J Exp Med. 1992 Jun;167(2):155-8.
Both aconite toxins (aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine) and a pufferfish toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) were detected in the blood of a legal autopsy case. In order to elucidate the in vivo influence of TTX on the toxic effects of aconitine, a mixture of aconitine and TTX was administered to male ICR mice orally or intraperitoneally. The animal experiments revealed that the time of death due to aconitine was significantly delayed in proportion to the dose of TTX compared with the case for aconitine alone, and that the mortality of aconitine was lowered by TTX when the dose ratio of the two toxins was in a particular range. Accordingly, it is thought that the toxic effects of aconitine are attenuated by TTX in vivo.
2.In vivo and in vitro metabolites from the main diester and monoester diterpenoid alkaloids in a traditional chinese herb, the aconitum species.
Zhang M;Peng CS;Li XB Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:252434. doi: 10.1155/2015/252434. Epub 2015 Feb 3.
Diester diterpenoid alkaloids (DDAs), such as aconitine (AC), mesaconitine (MA), and hypaconitine (HA), are both pharmacologically active compounds and toxic ingredients in a traditional Chinese herb, the Aconitum species. Many DDA metabolism studies have been performed to explore mechanisms for reducing toxicity in these compounds and in Aconitum species extracts for safe clinical administration. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the metabolism of toxic AC, MA, and HA and corresponding monoester diterpenoid alkaloids (MDAs) in the gastrointestinal tract and liver in different animal species and humans in vivo and/or in vitro, where these alkaloids are primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, carboxylesterases, and intestinal bacteria, which produces phase I metabolites, ester hydrolysed products, and lipoalkaloids. Furthermore, we classify metabolites detected in the blood and urine, where the aforementioned metabolites are absorbed and excreted. Less toxic MDAs and nontoxic alcohol amines are the primary DDA metabolites detected in the blood. Most other DDAs metabolites produced in the intestine and liver detected in the urine have not been reported in the blood.
3.An Efficient High-performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method to Elaborate the Changes of Components Between the Raw and Processed Radix Aconitum kusnezoffii.
Wang B;Ji J;Zhao S;Dong J;Tan P;Na S;Liu Y Pharmacogn Mag. 2016 Jan-Mar;12(45):4-8. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.175989.
BACKGROUND: ;Crude radix Aconitum kusnezoffii (RAK) has great toxicity. Traditional Chinese medicine practice proved that processing may decrease its toxicity. In our previous study, we had established a new method of RAK processing (Paozhi). However, the mechanism is yet not perfect.;OBJECTIVE: ;To explore the related mechanism of processing through comparing the chemical contents.;MATERIALS AND METHODS: ;A new processing method of RAK named stoving (Hong Zhi) was used. In particular, RAK was stored at 110°C for 8 h, and then high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) was developed for the detection of the alkaloids of the crude and processed RAK decoction pieces.;RESULTS: ;Thirty components of the crude RAK were discovered, among which, 23 alkaloids were identified. Meanwhile, 23 ingredients were detected in the processed RAK decoction pieces, among which, 20 alkaloids were determined yet. By comparison, eight alkaloids were found in both crude and processed RAK decoction pieces, 15 alkaloids were not found in the crude RAK, however, 10 new constituents yield after processing, which are 10-OH-hypaconine, 10-OH-mesaconine, isomer of bullatine A, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-mesaconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-aconine, 14-benzoyl-10-OH-hypaconine, dehydrated aconitine, 14-benzoylaconine, chuanfumine, dehydrated mesaconitine.