1.[Improving the solubility of fraxinellone to increase its oral bioavailability and hepatoprotective action against acute liver injury in mice].
Ran QQ;Ruan LP;Zhu DN;Yu BY Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Jun;42(6):675-80.
Fraxinellone, the major component of Cortex Dictamni, is naturally degraded limonids compound. Fraxinellone has significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute liver injury model. However, the low solubility and permeability of fraxinellone limited its potential application and even therapeutic effects. The aim of the paper is to increase oral bioavailability of fraxinellone, thus improving its hepatoprotection effect in vivo. We evaluated the effects of different pH values and different solubilizer (PEG 6000, PVP K30, HP-beta-CD, F68 and SDS) on the solubility of fraxinellone. The results showed that HP-beta-CD increased solubility of fraxinellone up to 155 times compared to that of water. More than 2. 1 mg mL1 fraxinellone can be resolved when adding 20% HP-beta-CD. Mouse acute liver injury model induced hy CCl4 was used to evaluate in vivo activity of fraxinellone with or without HP-beta-CD. The result shows that the hepatoprotective activity of fraxinellone in 20% HP-beta-CD solution has been significantly improved compared with that of fraxinellone solution without HP-beta-CD: the former inhibited 59 percent the increase of enzyme activity of ALT in liver, while the latter only inhibited 20 percent.
2.Suppression of NF-κB signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages is responsible for the amelioration of experimental murine colitis by the natural compound fraxinellone.
Wu XF;Ouyang ZJ;Feng LL;Chen G;Guo WJ;Shen Y;Wu XD;Sun Y;Xu Q Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014 Nov 15;281(1):146-56. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2014.10.002. Epub 2014 Oct 13.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects millions of people worldwide. Although the etiology of this disease is uncertain, accumulating evidence indicates a key role for the activated mucosal immune system. In the present study, we examined the effects of the natural compound fraxinellone on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice, an animal model that mimics IBD. Treatment with fraxinellone significantly reduced weight loss and diarrhea in mice and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. In addition, the activities of myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase were markedly suppressed, while the levels of glutathione were increased in colitis tissues following fraxinellone treatment. This compound also decreased the colonic levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of fraxinellone in mice with experimental colitis were attributed to its inhibition of CD11b(+) macrophage infiltration. The mRNA levels of macrophage-related molecules in the colon, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), were also markedly inhibited following fraxinellone treatment.
3.Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of essential oil from Dictamnus angustifolius.
Sun J;Wang X;Wang P;Li L;Qu W;Liang J J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Jan 15;159:296-300. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.06.055. Epub 2014 Jul 2.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: ;Dictamnus angustifolius (Rutaceae) has been used as an alternative for folk medicine, Dictamnus dasycarpus in the treatment of rheumatism, bleeding, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis, and skin diseases in Xinjiang Province of China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil (EO) from Dictamnus angustifolius, correlated with their chemical composition and evaluate their cytotoxicity.;MATERIALS AND METHODS: ;The EO were extracted by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of EO was identified by GC-MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against five microorganisms by the agar disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing DPPH and FRAP assays. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated in the mammalian cells lines A549, MCF7, B16 and LoVo using the MTT method to assess cell viability.;RESULTS: ;52 compounds representing the 97.2% of the total oil were identified by GC/MS. The major constituents of the oil were tetramethylenecyclobutane (42.07%) and fraxinellone (19.06%). The antimicrobial activity showed that the EO possess significant inhibition in Monilia albican ATCC 10231 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538.